Hydcrocele

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The most common disease of the tunica vaginalis is hydrocele.

The tunica vaginalis and tunica albuginea are invested with mesothelial cells and may be the site of fluid accumulation, inflammation or, uncommonly, tumour formation.

Hydrocele, which is the most common cause of swelling within the scrotum, is the result of fluid accumulating in the cavity bounded by the tunica vaginalis.
Congenital patency of the processus vaginalis may be a cause in childhood, other causes being inflammatory and neoplastic disorders of the testis or epididymis. Blood accumulating in the tunica is termed haematocele.

Benign proliferations of the mesothelial cells lining the tunica may occur. These may be reactive or may form adenomatoid tumours.
Rarely, malignant mesothelioma may develop within the tunica sac.
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