Multiple Sclerosis

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Multiple sclerosis is an immune-mediated disease of uncertain cause

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease in which there are relapsing episodes of immunologically mediated demyelination within the CNS.
Loss of myelin leads to failure of axonal function and neurological dysfunction.

The lesions of MS are confined to the brain and spinal cord. Areas of demyelination are termed plaques, best seen at the angles of the lateral ventricles, in the cerebellar peduncles, and in the brain stem, although they can occur at any site in the CNS.

Histologically, there is myelin loss associated with lymphocytic cuffing of small vessels. Macrophages enter the lesion and phagocytose damaged myelin, accumulating lipid and forming foam cells. Astrocytes around plaque margins become enlarged.

Areas of old myelin loss appear as sharply demarcated patches of firm, gelatinous, greyish pink discoloration.
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