Pulmonary Hypertension

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Pulmonary hypertension results in structural damage to pulmonary vessels.
Increased pulmonary arterial pressure is pulmonary hypertension,
This causes irreversible structural changes in pulmonary arteries, and leads to increased demand for work on the right side of the heart and right heart failure (cor pulmonale).
the most important being:
Chronic obstructive airways disease.
Fibrosis of the lungs.
Chronic pulmonary venous congestion.
In long-standing pulmonary hypertension, structural changes develop in the lung including medial hypertrophy in muscular arteries (with increase in amount of smooth muscle) and pulmonary veins
(arterialization).
There is occlusion of the lumen of pulmonary arteries by intimal proliferation, and alveolar macrophages containing haemosiderin are prominent. Fibrosis in the interstitium of the lung develops in long-standing cases.
The clinical effects of pulmonary hypertension are breathlessness and development of right-sided cardiac failure.
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