Author Topic: The Common Cold Or Upper Respiratory Infection (URI)  (Read 2813 times)

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Offline CilmiSabca

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The Common Cold Or Upper Respiratory Infection (URI)
« on: November 25, 2011, 06:22:20 PM »
Colds are very common among babies and young children because they have not had the chance to build up immunities against the many different cold viruses.
SYMPTOMS:
# Runny nose (discharge is watery at first, then thicker and yellowish)
# Sneezing
# Nasal congestion.
Sometimes:
# Dry cough, which may be worse when baby is lying down
# Fever
# Itchy throat
# Fatigue
# Loss of appetite
SEASON:
All year around.
CAUSE:
More than 100 different viruses are known to cause colds.
METHOD OF TRANSMISSION:
Usually spread from hand to hand.
INCUBATION PERIOD:
One to four days.
DURATION:
Usually three to ten days, but in small children colds can linger longer.
TREATMENT:
No known cure, but symptoms can be treated, as necessary:
# Suctioning of mucus with suction bulb (for a baby who's having trouble breathing through a stuffy nose, saline drops to soften the mucus and aspiration to suction it out will bring welcome relief). If mucus is hardened, before suctioning soften with over-the-counter saline nose drops. This may be necessary to help baby to feed as well as to sleep.
# Humidification to help moisten the air, reduce congestion, and make breathing easier for baby.
# Letting baby sleep on belly rather than back, with head elevated (by raising the head of the crib or carriage mattress with a couple of pillows or other supports under the mattress) to ease the breathing.
# Decongestants, if needed to make it easier for baby to eat and sleep, but only with doctor's okay.
# Commercial nose drops, if recommended by the physician, to ease congestion. But follow directions carefully; use for more than a few days can cause a rebound reaction and make baby feel worse.
# Petroleum jelly (Vaseline) or similar ointment applied lightly to outside of, and under, nose to help prevent chapping and reddening of skin. But be careful to not let it get into the nostrils, where it could be inhaled or block breathing.
# Cough medicine, but only to ease a dry cough that interferes with sleep, and only if it is prescribed by the doctor. A cough suppressant is not usually prescribed for a baby otherwise. Antibiotics will not help and should not be used unless there is bacterial secondary infection.
# Isolation, keeping the baby in the house and away from others for the first three days    which won't hasten recovery but will minimize spreading the cold to others.
DIETARY CHANGES:
Baby can continue a normal diet (though many have a loss of appetite), with the following exceptions:
# Reduce intake of milk and other diary products, since it is possible they may thicken secretions; infants exclusively on breast milk or formula can continue on them, unless the doctor advises otherwise.
# Increased intake of fluids to help replace those lost through fever or runny nose. If baby is old enough, drinking from a cup may be more comfortable than trying to nurse or bottle feed with a stuffy nose.
# Adequate intake of vitamin C foods. Whether or not vitamin C will prevent a cold is controversial, but some studies do show it can reduce the severity of  symptoms. So including extra citrus or other juices high in vitamin C in your baby's fluid intake is a good idea.
PREVENTION:
Careful hand washing for all the family, especially when someone has a cold, and particularly before handling baby or baby's things. Coughs and sneezes should be covered; disposable tissues rather than handkerchiefs should be used; eating utensils and towels should not be shared. If possible, no one with a cold should handle baby's toys or feeding utensils.
COMPLICATONS:
Colds sometimes progress to ear infections or bronchitis, and less often to pneumonia or sinusitis.
WHEN TO CALL THE DOCTOR:
If this is a first cold;  if your baby is under three months old, or under four months and has a fever over
101`F; if the temperature goes up suddenly or a fever continues for more than two days; if a dry cough lasts more than two weeks, is interfering with baby's sleep, causes choking or vomiting, becomes thick and productive or wheezy, or if breathing difficulties develop; if thick greenish yellow nasal discharge develops and lasts more than a day, or if the discharge is streaked with blood; if there is an unusual amount of crying or a complete loss of appetite; or if baby seems really out no sorts. A cough that lasts more than three weeks in an infant or six in an older baby may require consultation with specialist.


Talo SAARO Allaah


 

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