Bacteremia is the presence of bacteria in the blood. The blood is normally a sterile environment, so the detection of bacteria in the blood (most commonly with blood cultures) is always abnormal.
Bacteria can enter the bloodstream as a severe complication of infections (like pneumonia or meningitis), during surgery (especially when involving mucous membranes such as the gastrointestinal tract), or due to catheters and other foreign bodies entering the artereis or veins (including intravenous drug abuse).
Bacteremia can have several consequences. The immune response to the bacteria can cause sepsis (blood poisoning) and septic shock, which has a relatively high mortality rate. Bacteria can also use the blood to spread to other parts of the body (which is called hematogenous spread), causing infections away from the original site of infection. Examples include endocarditis or osteomyelitis. Treatment is with antibiotics, and prevention with antibiotic prophylaxisA can be given in situations where problems are to be expected.
so what Causes Bacteria in the blood?