Author Topic: Chemistry Glossary  (Read 17723 times)

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Offline Kamal

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Chemistry Glossary
« on: February 01, 2008, 08:55:13 AM »


Absolute zero:  the coldest possible tempreture, OK or 273 C
Accuracy measure of the amount a value differs from the true value
Acid:  a substaacnce that cotians hyrogen and yeilds hyrogen ion in water
Actinie series: Elements with atomic number from 89 and 103
Activited complex: the temporary usualabe, intermediate union of the reaction
Activation energy:  the minimum amount of enegry needed to produce an activated complex
Addition reaction: a reaction in organic chemistry in which atoms are added to a compound at the site of double or triple bonds.
Alcohols:  a family of organic compound in which the functional group is hyfroxy or OH group
Aldahydes the orgnic series with CHO as the functional group

Aliphatic relating to organic compounds having an open chain structure
Alkanes: the family of alphatic hyrocarbons having the general formula CnH2n +2 also
   Called methane or paraffin family
Alkenes: the family of aliphatic hyhrocarbon having the general formula CnH2n
Alkynes the family of alophatic hydrocarbons having formula cnhan s alsoc called the acetylene family
Allotrope a different physical form of an element with deferent properties
Alpha decay the spontaneous emision of an alpha particle by a nucleus
Apha particle: a lehium nucleud that is 2 protons 2 neutrons 4/2 HE
Amines: organic compounds with NH2 as a fuctional group
Amorphous: solid a soldid which soes not have a crystalline structure
Amphiprtic: relating to a subtancce, which can donate or accept a protin in a reaction
Anion: anegatively charge ion.
Anode: the electrode at which oxidation takes place.
Aromatic: relating to ring compounds in organic chemistry
Arrhenum acid:  a subtance, which yields the hyronuim ion in water solition.
Atomic mass: the average of the naturally occuring isotopes on an element.
Atomic mass units a realtive mass scale with a basic unit of 1/12 the mass of carbon 12
Atomic numbers the num, ber of the protons with a basic unit of 1/12 the mass of carbon
Atomic radius a measure of one half the distance between two nuclei in the solid phase.
Avogadro’s hypothesis: equal volumes of gases, when measured under the same condition of tempreture; contain the some numbere of molecules
Avogadro’s number the number of particles n a moles of a compound
Base: subtance wich yeilds hydroxide ions in solution, a protins acceptor
Beta decay: natural radioactivity in which beta particles are emitted form the nucleus of a radioactive element, cuasing an increase in the atomic number
Beta particles: hight energy elections
Binding energy: the enegry that holds together the protons and neutrons in an atom’s nucleus
Bohr Model of the Atom: a model of the atom that pictures the nucleus or the center of the arom and electrons in fixed orbits similar to the solar system.
Boiling point:  the tempreture at which vaporization can occur any where in luquid.
Boyle’s law >the volume of a given mass of a gas varies inversely with the presure (tempreture in constand
Bronsted acid: a proton donor
Bronsted base: a proton acceptor

Calorie one kilocalorie, a thousand calories.
Calorimeter: a device used to measure the hear given off or absort during a recation.
Carboxyl groups the COOH funtional group of organatic acids.
Catalyst: a substace that change the speed of a chemical reaction without itself 
With out it self-being change.
Catenation: the bonding toghter of identical atoms to form chains or rings,very common
    Very common carbon
Cathode: the electrode at wich reduction takes place 
Cathode ray: electron emmitte from cathode
Cation: a positively changed ION
Celsius scale: the centigrade thermometer scale.
Charles’ law: the volume given mass of a gas varies directly with Kelvin temperature (pressure it constant   V1/V2 T1/T2 
Colligative: those properties of solutions that depend on number rather then on nature of
Compound:  a subtance composed of two or more elements chemically united in defenite
   Proporstion by weight
Condensation: the change of a vapor into liquid with an accompanying release of heat
Covalent bond: the sharing of a pair of electrons between two nuclei
Crystal: a solid whose atoms, ion. Or molecules are arranged in a definite pattern.


Decomoposition: a chemical reaction in which a complex substance breaks down to form    simplers substances
Density: the weight per unit volume solids and liquids are usaully expressed in g/cm
   Gasses in g/1
Diagramtic: materials that are repelled by a magnetic field
Dihydroxy alcohol: an alchohol having two OH group also called glycols
Dipole: a molecule having posively and nagetively charged sites
Dissociation: separation of IONs from a crystalline solid in solution.

Electrode: a conductor in an electrical cell by which current enters or leaves an electroclyte
Electrolysis: the decomposition of substance throught the use of electricity
Electrolyte: a substance that in solution can conduct an electric current
Electron: a negatively charged particular in an atom, which has the mass of 1/1840
   of proton.
Electron affinity: the amount of energy liberated when an electron is added to a neutral
   Gaseous atom.
Electronegativity: a meaasure of the attraction of a nucleous for an electron
Element: a pure substance, which cannot be decomposed by ordinary chemical means
Ampirical formula: the simplest whole number ratio of the elements in a compound


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Offline Kamal

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Re: Chemistry Glossary 2
« Reply #1 on: May 09, 2008, 07:44:50 AM »
Empirical formula: the simplest whole number ratio of the elements in a compound.
Endothermic reaction:  a reaction in which energy is absorbed.
Energy: the ability to do work,
Enthalpy: the energy content of a system.
Entropy: a measure of the randomness of a system.
Enzyme: an organic catalyst, usually a protein.
Equation: a statement which expresses what has happened in a reaction.
Equilibrium: a state of balance between two chemical reactions in which opposing rates of reaction are equal.
Esterification: the reaction of an acid and an alcohol to produce water and an ester.

Evaportion: the changing of a stubstance from the liquid to the gaseous phase by the absorption of heat.

Excited atom: the state if an atom when an electron moves to a higher energy level leaving a lower energy level vacant.
Exothermic reaction: a reaction in which energy Is released.

Family: a vertical group in the periodic table.
Fission: the splitting of heavy nuclei in to lighter fragments.
Frequency: the number of cycles per second.
Fussion: the combining of two light nuclei to from the a heavier nucleus.
gamma rays: the hight energy x rays emitted from the nucleus of a radio active element.
gas density: the mass of a liter of gas expressed in grams per liter.
gas phrase: the phase of matter which has neither define volume nor shape.
Gay-lussac’s law: the volumes of combining gases are in small whole number ratio.
gram atomic mass: the gram amount of an element gases numerically equal of the atomic mass of the element.
ground state: the condition of an atom in which the electrons occupy the lowest available energy levels.

Group: the vertical columns of the periodic table,also called families.
Half-life: the length of time needed for one lalf of a given radioactive substance to undergo decay.
Halogenation: the placing of a halogen on a carbon chain.
Heat: the flow of energy between object of unequal temperature.

Heat of condensation: the amount of heat released as a unit of mass of a subtance from solid to liquid phase.

Heat of fusion: the amount of heat needed to change a unit mass of a substance from solid to liquid phase.
Heat of reaction: the amount of hear released or obsorbed in a reaction.
Heat of solidification: the amount of heat released as a unit mass of a substance changes from the liquid to the solid phase.
Heat of vaporization: the amount of heat needed to evaporate a unit mass of a liquid at its boiling point.
Heterocylic” relating to ring compounds in which one or more of the members of the chain are not carbon
Heterogeneous: consisting of different ingredients.
Homogeneous: having similar properties throughtout.
Hydrocarbon:an organic conpound which contains only carbon and hydrogen.
Hydrogen bond: a special dipole dipole bond formed between a covalently bonded hydrogen atom of one molecule and a different atom of hight electronegativity of an indentical molecule.
Hydrogenation: the addition of hydrogen to a substance.

Ideal gas: a theorical gas, which occupies no volume and whose particles have no attraction for each other
Incandescence: light given off by an object, which is heated.
Ion: a charged atom or group of charged atoms.
Ionic bond: a bond formed by the charge of an electrons between two atoms
Ionization constant: the equilibrium contant of a reversible in which ions are produced from molecules.
Ionization energy: the amount of heat needed to remove electrons from nuetral
Gaseous atoms.
Isomers: different structural arrangements of one or more compound having the same composition.
Isotopes: atoms that have the same atomic number but different atomic mass.

Kelvin temperature scale: a temperature scale which in 273 higher than celsuis scale.
Kernel: the nucleus of an atom plus all the electrons expect the valence electrons.

Kilogram: the standard unit of mass in the metric system.
Kinetic energy: energy of motion or use.
Kinetic theory: a theory to explain the behavior of gases.
Kinetics: the branch of chemistry that is concerned with the rates of chemical reactions

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Offline Hency

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Re: Chemistry Glossary
« Reply #2 on: November 04, 2009, 02:42:44 PM »
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