Author Topic: Medical Mnemonics of Anatomy & biochemistry  (Read 39539 times)

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Offline Dr.Noora

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Medical Mnemonics of Anatomy & biochemistry
« on: July 31, 2007, 01:47:25 PM »
                                                هل أنت طالب في كليّة الطب ؟         

                                                     هل تجد معاناة في حفظ المواد الدراســـــية لديك؟

                         إذا كانت الإجابة بنعم .... فإن شاء الله ســـتجد الحل الكامل هنا والكمال لله وحده 
 


                                                   
                                    Medical Mnemonics

                                     ما معنى هذه الجملة ؟
اساليب تقوية الذاكرة ... تســـــتعمل منذ زمن مع جميــــع طلبة الجامعات , بل معظمكم قد يســــتخدمها حاليا , وذلك لحــفظ مجمــــــوعة من أعــــــراض مرض ما , أو مجمــــــوعة عقاقيــــر لمـــــــــرض مـــا , وهكـــــــــذا 

                                   
                                                     
                                        أرجو أن يحوز الموضوع على رضاكم

                                                     بســــــــــم الله أبدأ
                                                           
                                                           




                                                   Anatomy التشــــريح


Elbow: which side has common flexor origin
FM ...as in FM Radio
Flexor Medial, so Common Flexor Origin is on the medial side




Medial malleolus: order of tendons, artery, nerve behind it
"Tom, ****, And Nervous Harry"
• From anterior to posterior
Tibialis
Digitorum
Artery
Nerve
Hallicus
• Full ****s for these are: Tibialis Posterior, Flexor Digitorum Longus, Posterior Tibial Artery, Posterior Tibial Nerve, Flexor Hallicus Longus
• Alternatively: "Tom, **** ANd Harry"
• Alternatively: "Tom, **** And Not Harry"



Tibia vs. fibula: which is lateral
The FibuLA is LAteral



Popliteal fossa: muscles arrangement
The two Semi's go together, Semimembranosus and Semitendonosus
The Membranosus is Medial and since the two semis go together, Semitendonosus is also medial
Therefore, Biceps Femoris has to be lateral
Of the semi's, to remember which one is superficial: the Tendonosus is on Top



Femoral triangle: arrangement of *******s
NAVEL
• From lateral hip towards medial navel
Nerve > directly behind sheath
Artery > within sheath
Vein > within sheath
Empty space > between vein and lymph
Lymphatics > with deep inguinal node
• Nerve/Artery/Vein are all called Femoral




Femoral triangle: arrangement of nerve, artery, vein
VAN
• From medial to lateral
Vein
Artery
Nerve
• Nerve/Artery/Vein are all called Femoral




Bronchi: which one is more vertical
"Inhale a bite, goes down the right"
Inhaled objects more likely to lodge in right bronchus, since it is the one that is more vertical


Brachioradialis: function, innervation, one relation, one attachment
BrachioRadialis
Function: Its the Beer Raising muscle, flexes elbow, strongest when wrist is oriented like holding a beer
Innervation: Breaks Rule: it's a flexor muscle, But Radial. (Radial nerve usually is for extensors: Recall BEST rule: B was for brachioradialis).
Important relation: Behind it is the Radial nerve in the cubital fossa
Attachment: Attaches to Bottom of Radius




Duodenum: lengths of parts
"Counting 1 to 4 but staggered"
1st part: 2 inches
2nd part: 3 inches
3rd part: 4 inches
4th part: 1 inch



Murphy's point organ ... for Irish
"Murphy was an Irishman (and Murphy is a classic Irish sur****), and Ireland=green"
Green organ in body is gallbladder, so Murphy's point is the gall bladder



Meckel's diverticulum details
2 inches long
2 feet from end of ileum
2 times more common in men
2% occurrence in population
2 types of tissues may be present
• Note: "di-" means "two", so diverticulum is the thing with all the twos



Liver inferior markings showing right/left lobe vs. vascular divisions
There's a Hepatic "H" on inferior of liver. One vertical stick of the H is the dividing line for anatomical right/left lobe and the other vertical stick is the divider for vascular halves. Stick that divides the liver into vascular halves is the one with vena cava impression ... since vena cava carries blood, it's fortunate that it's the divider for blood halves



Bowel components
"Dow Jones Industrial Average Closing Stock Report"
• From proximal to distal
Duodenum
Jejunum
Ileum
Appendix
Colon
Sigmoid
Rectum
• Alternatively: to include the cecum, >> Dow Jones Industrial Climbing Average Closing Stock Report



Diaphragm apertures
"3 holes, each with 3 things going through it"
Aortic hiatus: aorta, thoracic duct, azygous vein
Esophageal hiatus: esophagus, vagal trunks, left gastric vessels
Caval foramen: inferior vena cava, right phrenic nerve, lymph nodes



Bowel components
"Dublin Sisters Ceramic Red Colored Jewelry Apparently Illegal"
• 2-4 letters of each component
Duodenum
Sigmoid
Cecum
Rectum
Colon
Jejunum
Appendix
Ileum



Diaphragm apertures: spinal levels
Aortic hiatus = 12 letters = T12
Oesophagus = 10 letters = T10
Vena cava = 8 letters = T8



Tonsils: The three types
"PPL (people) have tonsils"
Pharyngeal
Palatine
Lingual


Voicebox: ****s of parts in sagittal cross-section
"There's 3 V's in your Voicebox"
Vestibular fold
Ventricle
Vocal fold
• Note: Vestibular and Vocal cord also known as false and true cords respectively



Pleura surface markings
"All the even ribs, in order: 2,4,6,8,10,12 show its route"
Rib2: sharp angle inferiorly
Rib4: the left pleura does a lateral shift to accommodate heart
Rib6: both diverge laterally
Rib8: midclavicular line
Rib10: midaxillary line
Rib12: the back



Lung lobes: segments of right middle lobe
"ML=ML"
Segments of Middle Lobe are Medial & Lateral



Nasal cavity components
"Never Call Me Needle Nose!"
Nares >> external
Conchae
Meatuses
Nares >> internal
Nasopharynx




Bronchi: which is more vertical
"Right on Red"
Many places allow making a right hand turn at a red light, if you first come to a complete stop
A child swallowing a red penny is more likely to get it stopped down the right bronchus, since it is more vertical



Bronchopulmonary segments of right lung
"A PALM Seed Makes Another Little Palm"
• In order from superior to inferior
Apical
Posterior
Anterior
Lateral
Medial
Superior
Medial basal
Anterior basal
Lateral basal
Posterior basal



Cricoarytenoids: abductor vs. adductor
When aliens abduct you, they Probe you
Posterior cricoarytenoids abduct. Lateral therefore is adduct by default




Bronchopulmonary segments of the left lung
"Astute Anatomists Share Inside Secrets About Lungs"
Apicoposterior .. S1+2
Anterior .. S3
Superior .. S4
Inferior .. S5
Superior .. S6
Anteromedial basal .. S7+8
Lateral basal .. S9




                                   Biochimistryالكيميـــاء الحيويه



Essential amino acids
PVT. TIM HALL
Phe
Val
Thr
Trp
Ile
Met
His
Arg
Leu
Lys
• Pvt. is short for Private in the military
• Arg and His are considered semiessential
• Alternatively: "MATT VIL PHLy"



Dicarboxylic acids (alpha, omega) C2 through C10: common ****s
"Oh My, Such Good Apple Pie, Sweet As Sugar!"
Oxalic
Malonic
Succinic
Glutaric
Adipic
Pimelic
Suberic
Azelaic
Sebacic



Phosphorylation cascade: action during low glucose
"In the Phasted State, Phosphorylate"
The phosphorylation cascade becomes active when blood glucose is low



tRNA: molecular shape
Fortunately, tRNA (Transfer RNA) is shaped like a capital T




Vitamins: which are fat soluble
KADE
Vitamin K
Vitamin A
Vitamin D
Vitamin E



Na/K pump: concentrations of Na vs. K on inside/outside of cell, pump action, number of molecules moved
HIKIN
There is a HIgh K concentration INside the cell
From this can deduce that the Na/K pump pumps K into cell and Na out of cell
Alternatively: When I was learning this pump (circa 1992), a band that was "in" was Kris Kross, and a band that was "out" was "Sha Na Na Na"
So pump moves K K (2 K) in and Na Na Na (3 Na) out
• Sadly, as infectious as their debut album was, Kris Kross can really no longer be classed as "in"



Insulin: function
INsulIN stimulates 2 things to go
IN 2 cells: Potassium and Glucose



Glycolysis steps
"Goodness Gracious, Father Franklin Did Go By Picking Pumpkins (to) Prepare Pies"
Glucose
Glucose-6-P
Fructose-6-P
Fructose-1,6-diP
Dihydroxyacetone-P
Glyceraldehyde-P
1,3-Biphosphoglycerate
3-Phosphoglycerate
2-Phosphoglycerate ... to
Phosphoenolpyruvate ... PEP
Pyruvate
• 'Did', 'By' and 'Pies' tell you the first part of those three: di-, bi-, and py-
• 'PrEPare' tells location of PEP in the process



Citric acid cycle compounds
"Oh Citric Acid Is Of (course) A SiLly STupid Funny Molecule"
Oxaloacetate
Citrate
Aconitate
Isocitrate
Oxalosuccinate
Alpha-ketoglutarate
SuccinyL-CoA
SuccinaTe
Fumarate
Malate
• SilLy and sTupid used to differentiate succinyL and succinaTe




B vitamin ****s
"The Rhythm Nearly Proved Contagious"
• In increasing order
Thiamine .. B1
Riboflavin .. B2
Niacin .. B3
Pyridoxine .. B6
Cobalamin .. B12
 

وللأمـــــــانه العلميــــــــــه المــــــوضـــوع منقــــــــــــــــــــــــول








you're the peace in my soul
that's why I will never really be alone

Dalxiis kaagamaan tagin Dalkeegoow
Dr.Noora


Offline Dr.Noora

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Medical Mnemonics of Physiology &Histology
« Reply #1 on: July 31, 2007, 01:56:12 PM »
                   Physiology .. علم دراســـة وظائف الأعضاء


Cochlea: inner vs. outer hair cell function
"Outer cells are Out of the brain. Inner cells are Into the brain"
Outer hair cells are motor efferents to amplify signal
Inner hair cells are sensory afferents that actually pick up the sound




Nervous stimulus: the 4 ways to classify
"A MILD stimulus"
Modality
Intensity
Location
Duration



Muscle spindle: origin of primary vs. secondary endings
"1 from 1, 2 from 2"
Primary ending is from Group Ia
Secondary ending from Group II




Pituitary hormones
FLAGTOP
Follicle stimulating hormone
Lutinizing hormone
Adrenocorticotropin hormone
Growth hormone
Thyroid stimulating hormone
Oxytocin
Prolactin
Alternatively: GOAT FLAP with the second 'A' for Anti-diruetic homone/vasopressin
• Note: there is also melanocyte secreting homone and Lipotropin, but they are not well understood



Adrenal cortex layers and products
"Go Find Rex, Make Good Sex"
• Layers
Glomerulosa
Fasiculata
Reticulata
• Respective products
Mineralcorticoids
Glucocorticoids
*** hormones
• Alternatively for layers: GFR
Glomerular Filtration Rate, convenient since adrenal glands are atop kidney



Balance organs
Utricle and Saccule keep US balanced



VO2 normal value is 250 mL/min
"V02" is the numbers, just need to rearrange the order
V is roman numeral for 5, so rearrange to 2V0, or 250 mL/min



PGI2 vs. TxA2 coagulation function
TxA2 Aggregates platelets
PGI2 Inhibits aggregation
• Note: full **** of PGI2 is prostaglandin I2 or prostacyclin, full **** of TxA2 is thromboxane A2



Einthoven's Triangle: organization
Corners are at RA (right arm), LA (left arm), LL>left leg
Number of L's at a corner tell how many + signs are at that corner>eg LL is ++
Sum of number of L's of any 2 corners tells the **** of the lead>eg LL-LA is lead III
For reference axes, the negative angle hemisphere is on the half of the triangle drawing that has all the negative signs; positive angle hemisphere contains only positive signs



Heart: -tropic definitions
Lusitropic: loose is relaxed. Definition: relax heart
Inotropic: when heart wall contracts, moves inward. Definition: contract heart
Chronotropic: 'chrono-' means 'time'. Defintion: heart rate>of SA node impulses
Dromotropic: only one left, it must be conduction speed by default.



                  Histology ... علم الأنســـجة و الخلايا


Muscle sarcomere: A vs. I as light or dark
There is only one vowel in dark and one vowel in light
These one vowels match up to their one letter ****s
DArk band is the A band
LIght band is the I band



Cochlea chambers: ones with perilymph vs. endolymph
PerI- ones also end with 'I': vestibulI and tympanI
Therefore, perilymph is in scala vestibuli and scala tympani, and the endolymph is in the scala media



Basophil morphology
Basophil has Big Blue Balls >> granules



Muscle sarcomere: H line vs. Z disc location
HAZI >> Hazy
H line is in A-band
Z disc is in the I band



Neutrophil's 2 distinctive physical features
1: There's up to 5 lobes of the nucleus joined by thin appendages. Tie this to it being a neutrophil nucleus by arranging the 5 lobes into a capital N for Neutrophil
2: the chicken leg (Barr Body) sticking out. Say it out loud: chick-N. The chick-N leg is for Neutrophil



Taste buds: vallate vs. fungiform distribution
Cross sectional shape of the top of the bud tells their distribution
Vallate: has a shallow 'V' at the top, so has a 'V' distribution at the back of the tongue
Fungiform: top is round so it is towards the round end of the tongue



Pancreatic exocrine cells: nuclei
A cells are indented around the capital A
B cells have a round nucleus like a B lymphocyte
D cells have Different shapes and sizes



Epidermis layers >> for Star Trek fans
"Brent Spiner Gained Lieutenant Commander"
• From deep to superficial
Basale
Spinosum
Granulosum
Lucidum
Corneum



Muscle cells: cardiac vs. skeletal's nuclei location/number
Nuclei location mirrors where the muscle is located in human body
Heart muscle is in the middle of body, so heart muscle has nucleus in middle
Skeletal muscles are at periphery of body, so nuclei are at periphery
Also, you have 1 heart, so usually only 1 nucleus per heart muscle cell, but have many skeletal muscles, so have many nuclei per long fibre



Muscle sarcomere bands
"Zee Intelligent Animal Has Muscle"
• From the Z disk, working inward, remembering symmetry
Z I A H M H A I Z• Alternatively: "Zoe Is A Horny Momma".

 


منقـــــــــــــــــــــــــول



you're the peace in my soul
that's why I will never really be alone

Dalxiis kaagamaan tagin Dalkeegoow
Dr.Noora

Offline Dr.Noora

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           Micro & Immunity ... علم البكتيريا و الفيروسات & المناعة


Steps of Control of outbreak of an infectious disease
2I
Investigation .. to trace the source of the infection
Immunization activities



Non-Hepatotropic viruses
2V , 2c
Varicella
Viral hemorrhagic fevers

CMV .. cytomegalovirus
Coxsackie



ENDOTOXIN
Endothelial cells/ Edema
Negative .. gram- bacteria
DIC/ Death
Outer membrane
TNF
O-antigen
X-tremely heat stable
IL-1
Nitric oxide/ Neutrophil chemotaxis



Acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis: classic presentation
"Sore throat, Face bloat, Pi$$ coke"
Sore throat: 1 week ago
Face bloat: facial edema
Pi$$ coke: coke-coloured urine
Alternatively, short version: Throat, bloat and coke


Staphylococcus aureus: diseases caused
SOFT PAINS
Skin infections
Osteomyelitis
Food poisoning
Toxic shock syndrome
Pneumonia
Acute endocarditis
Infective arthritis
Necrotizing fasciitis
Sepsis



Food poisoning: bugs inducing
"Eating Contaminated Stuff Causes Very Big Smelly Vomit"
E. coli O157-H7 > under*****d meat, esp. hamburgers
Clostridium botulinum > canned foods
Salmonella > poultry, meat, eggs
Vibrio parahaemolyticus > seafood
Bacillus cereus > reheated rice
Staphylococcus aureus > meats, mayo, custard
Clostridium perfringens > reheated meat
Vibrio vulnificus > seafood



Streptococcus pyogenes: virulence factors
SMASHED
Streptolysins
M protein
Anti-C5a peptidase
Streptokinase
Hyaluronidase
Exotoxin
DNAses


Streptococcus pyogenes: diseases caused
NIPPLES
Necrotising fasciitis and myositis
Impetigo
Pharyngitis
Pneumonia
Lymphangitis
Erysipelas and cellulitis
Scarlet fever/ Streptococcal TSS



Endocarditis: lab results suggesting it
"High Tech Lab Results Point At Endocarditis"
Hematuria
Thrombocytopenia
Leukocytosis, -penia
Red blood cell casta
Proteinuria
Anemia
Elevated ESR



cepholosporins
CEPHALOSPORINS-tough but important
schedule of parents
1 pm:take a ZOLI(bag) and roam with a THIN FELLOW
2 pm:start ROXI video and watch TINTIN
3 pm:take a TAXI go to ZOne.where they meet one ZIDI boy who has worn PER AXONS slippers
4 pm:to cure PIMPLES they go to ROME


schedule of ORACLE
1 pm:go to DR.ALEX REDI's house
2 pm:because of aCHLORhydria he starts watching ROXI video and watch AXN
3 pmIN FIXes PROduction of BUTEN


now what is this >>
parents means parental root
1st generation cephalosporins:cePHALOTHIN,cefaZOLIN
2nd generation:cefuROXIME,cefoxiTIN
3rd generation:cefoTAXIme,ceftiZOxime,ceftaZIDIme,ceft riAXONE,cefoPERazone
4th:cefePIME,cefpiROM

ORACLE means oral root
1st gen:cefaDRoxil,cephALEXIN,cephRADIne
2nd gen:cefACHLOR,cefuROXIme AXetil
3rd gen:cefDINir,ceFIXime,cefpodoxime PROxetil,ceftiBUTEN



Capsulated pathogenic organisms are
Some Killers Have Pretty Nice Capsules
S Streptococcus pneumoniae
K Klebsiella pneumoniae
H Haemophilus influenzae
P Pseudomonas aeruginosa
N Neisseria meningitidis
C Cryptococcus neoformans



Remeber... All bacilli are gram negative except > L.DATTA
L - Listeria
D - Diphtheria
A - Actinomycetes
T - Tetani Clostridium
T - TB Mycobatcterium
A - Anthrax bacillus




Hypersensitivity reactions: Gell and Goombs nomenclature
ACID
• From I to IV
Anaphylactic type: type I
Cytotoxic type: type II
Immune complex disease: type III
Delayed hypersensitivity (cell mediated): type IV



MHC I vs. II: T cell interaction
The "=8" equation
2x4=8, and 1x8=8
MHC II goes with CD4
MHC I goes with CD8



Immunoglobulin (Ig) types: the important ones worth remembering, in order of appearance
MAGDElaine .. a girl's ****
IgM
IgA
IgG
IgD
IgE
• Magdelaine tells you the order they usually appear: M first, then A or G
• Alternatively: IgM is IMmediate



Acute inflammation features
SLIPR
Swelling
Loss of function
Increased heat
Pain
Redness
• "What a cute pair of slippers" can be used to tie acute inflammation to SLIPR



Lupus signs and symptoms
SOAP BRAIN
Serositis .. pleuritis, pericarditis
Oral ulcers
Arthritis
P***osensitivity
Blood .. all are low - anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia
Renal .. protein
ANA
Immunologic .. DS DNA, etc
Neurologic .. psych, seizures



Goodpasture's Syndrome components
GoodPasture is Glomerulonephritis and Pnuemonitits
• From autoantibodies attacking Glomerular and Pulmonary basement membranes



Complement: function of C3a versus C3b
C3a: Activates Acute .. inflammation
C3b: Bonds Bacteria .. to macrophages--easier digestion
• If wish to know more than just C3
C3a, C4a, C5a activate acute
C3b, C4b bind bacteria



MHC I vs. MHC II properties
"Immunity helps to exterminate fun for bacteria"




HLA-DR genetic predisposition immune disease examples
HLA-DR
Hashimoto's disease
Leukemia/ Lupus
Autoimmune adrenalitis/ Anemia .. pernicious
Diabetes insipidous
Rheumatoid arthritis



Complement cascade initiating items: alternative vs. classic
Classic: Combined Complexes
Alternative: Activators Alone, or IgA
• Complexes are made of Ab and Ag combined together
• Examples of activators: endotoxin, microbial surface [/b
]




                       Pathology .. علم دراســة الأمراض


MI: post-MI complications
ACT RAPID
Arrhythmias
Congestive cardiac failure
Tamponade/ Thromboembolic disorders
Rupture > septum, papillary muscle
Aneurysm
Pericarditis
Infaction > second one
Death/ Dressler's syndrome



Deep venous thrombosis: diagnosis
DVT
Dilated superficial veins/ Discoloration/ Doppler ultrasound
Venography is gold standard
Tenderness of Thigh and calf



MI: complications
HAS CRAPPED
Heart failure/ Hypertension
Arrhythmia
Shock
Cardiac Rupture
Aneurysm
Pericarditis
Pulmonary Emboli
DVT



Heart failure causes
"HEART MAy DIE"
Hypertension
Embolism
Anemia
Rheumatic heart disease
Thyrotoxicosis > in pregnancy
Myocardial infarct
Arrythmia
Y
Diet & lifestyle
Infection
Endocarditis




Cardiovascular risk factors
Framingham
FRAMINGHAM
Family history
Running
Adiposity
Marlboros
Insulin resistance
Non-regulated lipids
Georgie Pie
Hypertension
Age
Male




Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN) subtype classification
Each subtype has 2 or 3 causes, plus something 1 or 2 more items
MEN I is disease of 3 P's: [Pituitary, Parathyroid, Pancreas] plus one more: adrenal cortex
MEN II is disease of 2 C's: [Carcinoma of thyroid, Catacholamines (pheochromocytoma)] plus two more: parathyroid for MEN IIa or mucocutaneous neuromas for MEN IIB
also called MEN III




Takayasu's disease is Pulseless disease
Can't Tak'a ya pulse
Can't take your pulse
Takayasu's disease known as Pulseless disease, since pulse is weakened in the upper extremities




Hypercalcemia: symptoms of elevated serum levels
"Bones, Stones, Groans, Moans"
Bones: pain in bones
Stones: renal
Groans: pain
Psychic moans/ Psychological overtones: confused state




Acute ischemia: signs
6 P's
Pain
Pallor
Pulselessness
Paralysis
Paraesthesia
Perishingly cold




Hodgkin's lymphoma classification
A: Asymptomatic
B: Bad




Lichen planus characteristics
Planus has 4 P's
Peripheral
Polygonal
Pruritus
Purple




Hypertension: secondary hypertension causes
CHAPS
Cushing's syndrome
Hyperaldosteronism
Aorta coarctation
Phaeochromocytoma
Stenosis of renal arteries
• Note: only 5% of hypertension cases are secondary, rest are primary




Hepatomegaly: 3 common causes, 3 rarer causes
Common are 3 C's
Cirrhosis
Carcinoma
Cardiac failure
Rarer are 3 C's
Cholestasis
Cysts
Cellular infiltration




MI: sequence of elevated enzymes after MI
C-AST-Le
castle
CK-MB first
AST second
LDH third
• Also: can use the last 'E' for ESR




Pulmonary embolism: risk factors
TOM SCHREPFER
Trauma
Obesity
Malignancy
Surgery
Cardiac disease
Hospitalization
Rest
Elderly
Past history
Fracture
Estrogen
Road tripa




          Toxicology & Pharmacology .. الســــموم & الأدوية





Factors affecting the action of poisons
DRS درس
Dose
Route of administration
State





Drugs cause tachycardia
CASH كاش
Cocaine
Atropine
Amphetamine
Salicylate
Hashish




Drugs cause Bradycardia
SODA صودا
Sedative & hypnotics
Opiate
Digitalis
Anticholinestrase




Poisons cause hypertension
MCAN مكان
Morphine withdrawal
Cocaine
Amphetamine
Nicotine




Poisons cause Pupillary dilatation2A , 2C , 2M
Atropine
Amphetamine

Cocaine
CO

Menthol
Morphine withdrawal




Poisons cause optic neuritis
NML نمل
Naphthalene
Methanol
Lead




Poisons decrease salivation
MAN
Morphine
Atropine
Nutmeg




Hepatotoxic drugs
HEPATIC
Hemolytic poisons
Ethanol
Paracetamol
Aflatoxin
Toxaphene
Iron
Chlorpromazine




Nephrotoxic drugs
NEPHRO
NSAIDS
Ergot alkaloids
Pre renal failure
Heavy ****ls
Rhabdomylosis causing drugs
Oxalic acid




Drugs causing ****bolic acidosis
TSLIM تســليم
TCA
Salicylate
Lethium
Iron
Methanol




Poisons acting on Cerebral Cortex in ttt of convulsion
2A , 2C
Atropine
Amphetamine

Cocaine
Caffine




First-aid Treatment of poisoning
A B C D
Airway >> Suction of secretion
Breathing >> Oxygen via endotracheal tube
Circulation >> I.V. injections
Disability >> Convulsions & Coma




Symptomatic ttt of poisoning coma
A B C D E F
Antibiotics … to avoid infection

Bowel care … by enema
Bladder care … by catheterization
Buccal care … by frequent washing
Blanket … to warm the patient
Bed sores … change the position of the patient

Continuous monitoring of pulse , B.P. , temp and reflexes
Dehydration … ttt by I.V. fluids
Electrolytes

Fluid balance
Feeding … by ryle tube & I.V. fluids

Naloxone … 4 respiratory depression >> 2mg i.v





Succinylcholine: action, use
Succinylcholine gets Stuck to Ach receptor, then Sucks ions in through open pore
You Suck stuff in through a mouth-tube, and drug is used for intubation




Cholinergics (eg organophosphates): effects
If you know these, you will be LESS DUMB
Lacrimation
Excitation of nicotinic synapses
Salivation
Sweating
Diarrhea
Urination
Micturition
Bronchoconstriction




Steroids: side effects
BECLOMETHASONE
Buffalo hump
Easy bruising
Cataracts
Larger appetite
Obesity
Moonface
Euphoria
Thin arms & legs
Hypertension/ Hyperglycaemia
Avascular necrosis of femoral head
Skin thinning
Osteoporosis
Negative nitrogen balance
Emotional liability




Methyldopa: side effectsMETHYLDOPA
Mental retardation
Electrolyte imbalance
Tolerance
Headache/ Hepatotoxicity
psYcological upset
Lactation in female
Dry mouth
Oedema
Parkinsonism
Anaemia




Sodium valproate: side effects
VALPROATE
Vomiting
Alopecia
Liver toxicity
Pancreatitis/ Pancytopenia
Retention of fats
Oedema
Appetite increase
Tremor
Enzyme inducer




Captopril (an ACE inhibitor): side effects
CAPTOPRIL
Cough
Angioedema/ Agranulocystosis
Proteinuria/ Potassium excess
Taste changes
Orthostatic hypotension
Pregnancy contraindication/ Pancreatitis/ Pressure drop
Renal failure (and renal artery stenosis contraindication)/ Rash
Indomethacin inhibition
Leukopenia/ Liver toxicity




Lithium: side effects
LITH
Leukocytosis
Insipidus [diabetes insipidus, tied to polyuria]
Tremor/ Teratogenesis
Hypothyroidism



Opioids: effects
BAD AMERICANS
Bradycardia & hypotension
Anorexia
Diminished pupilary size
Analgesics
Miosis
Euphoria
Respiratory depression
Increased smooth muscle activity
Constipation
Ameliorate cough reflex
Nausea and vomiting
Sedations




Ca++ channel blockers: uses
CA++ MASH

Cerebral vasospasm/ CHF
Angina
Migranes
Atrial flutter, fibrillation
Supraventricular tachycardia
Hypertension



Alternatively >
CHASM
Cererbral vasospasm / CHF
Hypertension
Angina
Suprventricular tachyarrhythmia
Migranes




HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins): side effects, contraindications, interactionsHMG-CoA
• Side effects
Hepatotoxicity
Myositis
• Contraindications
Girl during pregnancy/ Growing children
• Interactions
Coumarin/ Cyclosporine




Antiarrhythmics: class III members
BIAS
Bretylium
Ibutilide
Amiodarone
Sotalol



Beta-blockers: main contraindications, cautions
ABCDE
Asthma
Block>heart block
COPD
Diabetes mellitus
Electrolyte>hyperkalemia




Clopidogrel: use
CLOPIdogrel is a drug that prevents
CLots, an Oral Platelet Inhibitor>OPI




Amiodarone: action, side effects
6 P's
Prolongs action potential duration
P***osensitivity
Pigmentation of skin
Peripheral neuropathy
Pulmonary alveolitis and fibrosis
Peripheral conversion of T4 to T3 is inhibited -> hypothyroidism




Beta blockers: members
"The NEPALPrime Minister"
Timolol
Nadolol
Esmolol
Pindolol
Atenolol
Labetalol
Propranolol
Metoprolol




Beta-blockers: nonselective beta-blockers
"Tim Pinches His Nasal Problem>because he has a runny nose
Timolol
Pindolol
Hismolol
Naldolol
Propranolol





Antiarrhythmics: classification I to IV
MBACollege• In order of class I to IV
Membrane stabilizers>class I
Beta blockers
Action potential widening agents
Calcium channel blockers




Enoxaprin (prototype low molecular weight heparin): action, monitoring
EnoXaprin only acts on factor Xa
Monitor Xa concentration, rather than APTT




PREANASTHETIC MEDICATION

HOSANA this is a christian word
H-H2blockers
O-opeoids
S-sedatives-antianxiety
A-anticholenergic
N-neuroleptics
A-antiemetics




anti epeleptic drugs
Dr.BHAISAB's New PC
D...deoxy barbiturates
B...barbiturates
H....hydantoin
A.. aliphatic carb acids
I....iminostilbenes
S....succinimides
B....BZD's
N.... newer drugs
P....Phenyltriazines
C... cyclic gaba analogues




adverse effects of tetracyclins
KAPIL DEV
K kidney toxicity
A antianabolic effect
P p***otoxicity
I inc ICP
L liver toxicity

D diabetes insipidus
E e****l problems
V vestibular toxicity




GENERAL TOXICITY OF ANTICANCER DRUGS
SHaLi's BFGhoghari Gautam is Chor
S-skin
H-hyperurecemia
L-lymphoreticular tissue
B-bone marrow
F-Foetus
G-gonads
G-git
C-carcinogenecity





inhalational corticosteroids
Bed Bug Flew To Florida
B-BECLOMETHASONE DIPROPIONATE
B-BUDESONIDE
F-FLUTICASONE PROPIONATE
T-TRIAMCINALONE
F-FLUNISOLIDE




                           ENT .. أنف و أذن و حنجرة




Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: classic symptoms
NOSE
Neck mass
Obstructed nasal passage
Serous otitis media externa
Epistaxis or discharge




Ear drops: direction to pull ear when instilling
For an grown UP it is UP
For a chilD it is Down




Oralpharangeal cancers: aetiology
6 S's
Smoking
Spicy food
Syphilis
Spirits .. booze
Sore tooth
Sepsis






                              Ophthalmolgy .. الرمـــد



Hereditary diseases which lead to cataract
4M
Mongolism
Myotonic dystrophy
Marfan`s syndrome
Marchesani`s syndrome




Symplepharon . . . clinical picture
3D
Disfigurement & lagophthaloms
Diplopia
Diminution of vision




Optic atrophy causes
ICING
Ischaemia
Compressed nerve
Intracranial pressure > raised
Neuritis history
Glaucoma




Red eye causes
GO SUCK
Glaucoma
Orbital disease
Scleritis
Uveitis
Conjunctivitis
Keratitis




Anopsia: quarantic anopsia: location of lesion
Upper: Top: Temporal lesions
Lower: Pits: Parietal lesions




Cataracts: causes
ABCDE
Aging
Bang: trauma, other injuries .. eg infrared
Congenital
Diabetes and other ****bolic disturbances
Eye diseases: glaucoma, uveitis




Diplopia (uniocular): causes
ABCD
Astigmatism
Behavioral: psychogenic
Cataract
Dislocated lens




Corneal stromal dystrophies
"Marilyn Monroe Gets High in LA"
Macular: Mucopolysaccharide
Granular: Hyaline
Lattice: Amyloid




Nasopharyngeal cancer: classic symptoms
NOSE
Neck mass
Obstructed nasal passage
Serous otitis media externa
Epistaxis and discharge




Cataracts: differential
CATARAct
Congenital
Aging
Toxicity
Accidents
Radiation
Abnormal ****bolism




Dacryocystitis, dacryoadenitis: apparatus affected
Dacryocystitis, dacryadenitis
• Cry, so affects lacrimal gland
• Infection and inflammation, respectively




Cataracts: causes
CATARAct
Congenital
Aging
Toxicity
Accidents
Radiation
Abnormal ****bolism



you're the peace in my soul
that's why I will never really be alone

Dalxiis kaagamaan tagin Dalkeegoow
Dr.Noora

Offline Dr.Noora

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Medical Mnemonics of Pediatrics,Obsterics&Gynecology and Dermatology
« Reply #3 on: July 31, 2007, 02:22:01 PM »
                             Pediatrics .. طب الأطفال

Measles: complications
MEASLES COMP
Myocarditis
Encephalitis
Appendicitis
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis
Laryngitis
Early death
Sh!ts>diarrhoea
Corneal ulcer
Otis media
Mesenteric lymphadenitis
Pneumonia




Sturge-Weber syndrome: hallmark features
Sturge-Weber
1. Seizures
2. PortWine stain




Guthrie card: diseases identified with it
"Guthrie Cards Can Help Predict Bad Metabolism"
Galactosaemia
Cystic fibrosis
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
Hypothyroidism
Phenylketonuria
Biotidinase deficiency
Maple syrup urine disease




Croup: symptoms
3 S's
Stridor
Subglottic swelling
Seal-bark cough




Ataxia-Telangiectasia (AT): common sign
AT
Absent
Thymus




Cerebral palsy (CP): most likely cause
CP: Cerebral Palsy
Child Premature
• The premature brain is more prone to all the possible insults




Vacterl syndrome: components
VACTERL
Vertebral anomalies
Anorectal malformation
Cardiac anomaly
Tracheo-esophageal fistula
Exomphalos
Renal anomalies
Limb anomalies




Guthrie card: diseases identified with it
GUTHRIE
Galactosaemia
Urine
THyRoid
Inborn Errors of ****bolism




Duodenal atresia vs. Pyloric stenosis: site of obstruction
Duodenal Atresia: Distal to Ampulla of vater
Pyloric stenosis: Proximal to it




Bilirubin: p***otherapy
BiLirUbin absorbs light maximally in the
BLUe range
 




         Obstetrics & Gynecology .. طب النســاء و التوليد


Oral contraceptive complications: warning signs
ACHES
Abdominal pain
Chest pain
Headache .. severe
Eye .. blurred vision
Sharp leg pain




Abdominal pain: causes during pregnancy
LARA CROFT
Labour
Abruption of placenta
Rupture .. eg. ectopic/ uterus
Abortion
Cholestasis
Rectus sheath haematoma
Ovarian tumour
Fibroids
Torsion of uterus




Post-partum haemorrhage (PPH): causes
4 'T's
Tissue >> retained placenta
Tone >> uterine atony
Trauma >> traumatic delivery, episiotomy
Thrombin >> coagulation disorders, DIC




Prenatal care questions
ABCDE
Amniotic fluid leakage?
Bleeding vaginally?
Contractions?
Dysuria?
Edema?
Fetal movement?




Vaginal pH
Vagina has 4 labia and normal pH of vagina is about 4




CVS and amniocentesis: when performed
"Chorionic" has 9 letters and Chorionic villus sampling performed at 9 weeks gestation
"AlphaFetoProtein" has 16 letters and it's measured at 16 weeks gestation







                                    Dermatology ... الجلدية


Malignant melanoma: 3 sites with poor prognosis
BANS
Back of Arm
Neck
Scalp




Albinism: type I vs. II classification
"One has None. Two Accumulates"
Type I: have no pigment
Type II: No pigment at birth, but accumulates as person ages




Generalized skin hyperpigmentation: causes
"With generalized, none of skin is SPARED"
Sunlight
Pregnancy
Addison's disease
Renal failure
Excess iron .. haemochromatosis
Drugs .. eg busulphan




Clubbing: causes
CLUBBING
Cyanotic heart disease
Lung disease .. hypoxia, lung cancer, bronchiectasis, cystic fibrosis
UC/Crohn's disease
Biliary cirrhosis
Birth defect .. harmless
Infective endocarditis
Neoplasm .. esp. Hodgkins
GI malabsorption




Cutaneous inflammation patterns
"Pus of Pig Valve"
• Remove the vowels: PSFPGVLV
Psoriaform
Spongiotic .. eczematous
Folliculitis
Panniculitis
Granulomatous
Vasculopathic
Lichenoid
Vessiculobullous




Nodules: painful cutaneous nodules causes
BENGAL CO
Blue rubber bleb nevus
Eccrine spiradenoma
Neurilemmoma/ Neuroma
Glomus tumor
Angiolipoma/ Angioleiomyoma/ Angiosarcoma
Leiomyoma
Cutaneous endometriosis/ Calcinosis cutis
Osteoma cutis




Wound healing: factors delaying
DID NOT HEAL
Drugs
Infection/ Icterus/ Ischemia
Diabetes
Nutrition
Oxygen .. hypoxia
Toxins
Hypothermia/ Hyperthermia
EtOH
Acidosis
Local anesthetics




White patch of skin: differential
"Vitiligo PATCH"
Vitiligo
Pityriasis alba/ Post-inflammatory hypopigmentation
Age related hypopigmentation
Tinea versicolor/ Tuberous sclerosis .. ashleaf macule
Congenital birthmark
Hansen's .. leprosy




Psoriasis: pathophysiology
PSORIASIS
Pink Papules/ Plaques/ Pinpoint bleeding (Auspitz sign)/ Physical injury (Koebner phenomenon)/ Pain
Silver Scale/ Sharp margins
Onycholysis/ Oil spots
Rete Ridges with Regular elongation
Itching
Arthritis/ Absces .. Munro
Stratum corneum with nuclei, neutrophils
Immunologic
Stratum granulosum absent/ Stratum Spinosum thickening




Raynaud's phenomenon: causes
COLD HAND
Cryoglobulins/ Cryofibrinogens
Obstruction/ Occupational
Lupus erythematosus, other connective tissue disease
Diabetes mellitus/ Drugs
Hematologic problems .. polycythemia, leukemia, etc
Arterial problems .. atherosclerosis
Neurologic problems .. vascular tone
Disease of unknown origin .. idiopathic




you're the peace in my soul
that's why I will never really be alone

Dalxiis kaagamaan tagin Dalkeegoow
Dr.Noora

Offline Dr.Noora

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Medical Mnemonics of Clinical and Gastroenterology.
« Reply #4 on: July 31, 2007, 02:30:39 PM »

                                      Clinical ... العملى

1. Argyll-Robertson Pupil
Prostitute's Eye- accommodates but does not react, pathognomonic of 3ry syphilis




2. Felty's Syndrome
Felty's syndrome is the arthritis in which the spleen can be felty




3. Causes of Acute pancreatitis
GET SMASH'D
Gallstones, Ethanol, Trauma, Steroids, Mumps, Autoimmune(PAN), Scorpion bites, Hyperlipidemia, Drugs(azathioprine, diuretics)




4. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia
Each of the MENs is a disease of three or two letters plus a feature
MEN I is a disease of the three Ps plus a feature
(pituitary, parathyroid and pancreas)
plus adrenal cortex

MEN II is a disease of the two Cs plus a feature
(carcinoma of the thyroid and catacholamines [pheochromocytoma]) plus parathyroid for MEN IIa or mucocutaneous neuromas for MEN IIb (aka MEN III)




5. post-operative fever
The five W's--post-operative fever
Wind--pneumonia, atelectasis
Water--urinary tract infection
Wound--wound infections
Wonderdrugs--especially anesthesia
Walking--walking can help reduce deep vein thromboses and pulmonary embolus




6. classification of hypersensitivity reactions ... Gell & Goombs
ACID
Type I Anaphylaxis
Type II Cytotoxic-mediated
Type III Immune-complex
Type IV Delayed hypersensitivity




7. WBC Count
"Nobody Likes My Educational Background"
"60, 30, 6, 3, 1"
Neutrophils 60%
Lymphocytes 30%
Monocytes 6%
Eosinophils 3%
Basophils 1:




8. Causes of pancytopenia
"All my blood has taken some poison"
Aplastic anemias
Megaloblastic anemias
Bone marrow infiltration
Hypersplenism
TB
SLE
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria






                            Gastroenterology ... الباطنة






Complication of hepatitis
FTAC فتاك
Fulminant LCF
Tumor
Aplastic anemia
Chronicity
Carrier state
Cholestatic hepatitis




Slurred speech

A
• African Sleeping sickness ... slurred speech
• Alcohol abuse ... slurred speech
• Ataxia Telangiectasia ... slurred speech
C
• Classic childhood ALD ... dysarthria (poorly articulated speech)
D
• Diabetic hypoglycemia ... slurred speech
E
• East African Trypanosomiasis ... slurred speech
F
• Fahr's Syndrome ... dysarthria (poorly articulated speech)
• Friedreich's ataxia ... slurred speech
• Frostbite ... slurred speech
H
• Hallervorden-Spatz disease ... dysarthria
• Huntington's Disease ... slurred speech
• Hypoglycemia ... slurred speech
• Hypoglycemic attack ... slurred speech
M
• Motor neuron diseases ... slurred speech
• Multiple Sclerosis ... slurred speech
• Myasthenia Gravis ... slurred speech
N
• Narcolepsy ... slurred speech
O
• Olivopontocerebellar Atrophy ... slurred speech (dysarthria)
• Opsoclonus Myoclonus ... dysarthria (poorly articulated speech)
P
• Primary Lateral Sclerosis ... dysarthria (poorly articulated speech)
T
• Transient Ischemic Attack ... slurred speech
W
West African Trypanosomiasis ... slurred speech





Causes of Nausea
Addison Disease
Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
Appendicitis
Brain Tumor ... Cancer
Bulimia
Cancer
Depression
Diabetes
Flu
Food Poisoning
Gastroenteritis
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
Gastroparesis
Heart Attack
Hydrocephalus
Kidney Failure
Pancreatitis
Peptic Ulcer
Vestibular Balance Disorders
Viral Hepatitis




Types of Nausea
VOMIT
Vestibular
Obstruction of Bowel caused by constipation
DysMotility of upper gut
Infection, Inflammation
Toxins stimulating the CTZ in the brain such as Opioids




Diaphragm apertures: spinal levels
Aortic hiatus = 12 letters = T12
Oesophagus = 10 letters = T10
Vena cava = 8 letters = T8




Meckel's diverticulum details
2inches long
2feet from end of ileum
2times more common in me
2occurrence in population
2types of tissues may be presens
• Note: "di-" means "two", so diverticulum is the thing with all the twos




Diaphragm apertures
"3 holes, each with 3 things going through it"
Aortic hiatus: aorta, thoracic duct, azygous vein
Esophageal hiatus: esophagus, vagal trunks, left gastric vessels
Caval foramen: inferior vena cava, right phrenic nerve, lymphatics




Liver inferior markings showing right/left lobe vs. vascular divisions
There's a Hepatic "H" on inferior of liver. One vertical stick of the H is the dividing line for anatomical right/left lobe and the other vertical stick is the divider for vascular halves. Stick that divides the liver into vascular halves is the one with vena cava impression (since vena cava carries blood, it's fortunate that it's the divider for blood halves)




Bowel components
"Dow Jones Industrial Average Closing Stock Report"
• From proximal to distal
Duodenum
Jejunum
Ileum
Appendix
Colon
Sigmoid
Rectum
• Alternatively: to include the cecum, "Dow Jones Industrial Climbing Average Closing Stock Report"




Duodenum: lengths of parts
"Counting 1 to 4 but staggered"
1st part: 2 inches
2nd part: 3 inches
3rd part: 4 inches
4th part: 1 inch




Bowel components
"Dublin Sisters Ceramic Red Colored Jewelry Apparently Illegal"
• 2-4 letters of each component
Duodenum
Sigmoid
Cecum
Rectum
Colon
Jejunum
Appendix
Ileum






Ulcerative colitis: definition of a severe attack
A STATE
Anemia less than 10g/dl
Stool frequency greater than 6 stools/day with blood
Temperature greater than 37.5
Albumin less than 30g/L
Tachycardia greater than 90bpm
ESR greater than 30mm/hr




Vomiting: extra GI differential
VOMITING
Vestibular disturbance/ Vagal ...reflex pain
Opiates
Migrane/ ****bolic...DKA, gastroparesis, hypercalcemia
Infections
Toxicity...cytotoxic, digitalis toxicity
Increased ICP, Ingested alcohol
Neurogenic, psychogenic
Gestation




Pancreatitis (acute): causes
I GET SMASHED
Idiopathitic
Gallstones
Ethanol
Trauma
Steroids
Mumps
Autoimmune (PAN)
Scorpion stings
Hyperlipidemia/ Hypercalcemia
ERCP
Drugs ...including azathioprine and diuretics
• Note: 'Get Smashed' is slang in some countries for drinking, and ethanol is an important pancreatitis cause.
• Note: Shortest answer is gallstones for women, and ethanol for men. And scorpian stings for people from Trinidad.




IBD: surgery indications
"I CHOP"
Infection
Carcinoma
Haemorrhage
Obstruction
Perforation
• "Chop" convenient since surgery chops them open




Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC) cause is DNA mismatch repair
DNA mismatch causes a bubble in the strand where the two nucleotides don't match
This looks like the ensuing polyps that arise in the colon





IBD: extraintestinal manifestations
A PIE SAC
Aphthous ulcers
Pyoderma gangrenosum
Iritis
Erythema nodosum
Sclerosing cholangitis
Arthritis
Clubbing of fingertips



Digestive disorders: pH level
With vomiting both the pH and food come up
With diarrhea both the pH and food go down




H. Pylori treatment regimen...rough guidelines
"Please Make Tummy Better"
Proton pump inhibitor
Metronidazole
Tetracycline
Bismuth
• Alternatively: TOMB
Tetracycline
Omeprazole
Metronidazole
Bismuth


Bilirubin: common causes for increased levels
"*** Liver"
Hemolysis
Obstruction
Tumor
Liver disease




Ulcerative colitis: complications
"PAST Colitis"
Pyoderma gangrenosum
Ankylosing spondylitis
Sclerosing pericholangitis
Toxic megacolon
Colon carcinoma

                                         وللإمانة العلمية
                                                      الموضوع
                                                          م               
                                                          ن     
                                                          ق
                                                          و
                                                          و
                                                         ل         
                                                       للإفادة



you're the peace in my soul
that's why I will never really be alone

Dalxiis kaagamaan tagin Dalkeegoow
Dr.Noora

Offline Admin

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  • Towards a better peaceful and healthy life!
    • Somali Medical Association
Medical Mnemonics
« Reply #5 on: July 31, 2007, 09:25:46 PM »
Check more mnemonics inside this page (Left Corner)
http://www.somalidoc.com/ppt.htm
Regards
Dr.Mahdi
"you never cure a patient, you treat pain often but you always comfort the patient."
www.somalidoc.com

Offline Williamparkar

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  • Gender: Male
Re: Medical Mnemonics of Anatomy & biochemistry
« Reply #6 on: April 16, 2010, 01:46:15 PM »
1. Argyll-Robertson Pupil
Prostitute's Eye- accommodates but does not react, pathognomonic of 3ry syphilis




2. Felty's Syndrome
Felty's syndrome is the arthritis in which the spleen can be felty




3. Causes of Acute pancreatitis
GET SMASH'D
Gallstones, Ethanol, Trauma, Steroids, Mumps, Autoimmune(PAN), Scorpion bites, Hyperlipidemia, Drugs(azathioprine, diuretics)




4. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia
Each of the MENs is a disease of three or two letters plus a feature
MEN I is a disease of the three Ps plus a feature
(pituitary, parathyroid and pancreas)
plus adrenal cortex

MEN II is a disease of the two Cs plus a feature
(carcinoma of the thyroid and catacholamines [pheochromocytoma]) plus parathyroid for MEN IIa or mucocutaneous neuromas for MEN IIb (aka MEN III)




5. post-operative fever
The five W's--post-operative fever
Wind--pneumonia, atelectasis
Water--urinary tract infection
Wound--wound infections
Wonderdrugs--especially anesthesia
Walking--walking can help reduce deep vein thromboses and pulmonary embolus


Offline Maryalice

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  • *
  • Posts: 1
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  • Gender: Male
Re: Medical Mnemonics of Anatomy & biochemistry
« Reply #7 on: April 22, 2011, 10:01:08 AM »
wow, so cool , but it's too long a post.. :o


 

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